Just An Application

September 30, 2014

Building The Android Runtime (ART) For Mac OS X: Part Eight — Testing, Testing

Having got the Android Runtime to build, eventually, does it actually work ?

Running art the immediate answer is no,

    $art
    E/JniInvocation(46765): Failed to dlopen libart.so: dlopen(libart.so, 2): image not found
    Failed to initialize JNI invocation API from libart.so

The art executable is a script which contains the following so it looks as though this problem is easily fixed.

    ...
    
    invoke_with=
    DALVIKVM=dalvikvm
    LIBART=libart.so
    
    ...

Trying again after modifying the art script appropriately we get

    $art
    art I 46796 66656 art/runtime/gc/space/image_space.cc:269] RelocateImage: \
        /Users/simon/Scratch/art/out/host/darwin-x86/bin/../bin/patchoat \
            --input-image-location=/Users/simon/Scratch/art/out/host/darwin-x86/bin/../framework/core.art \
            --output-image-file=/Users/simon/Scratch/xper/art/android-data46788/dalvik-cache/x86_64/Users@simon@Scratch@art@out@host@darwin-x86@bin@..@framework@core.art \
            --input-oat-location=/Users/simon/Scratch/art/out/host/darwin-x86/bin/../framework/core.oat \
            --output-oat-file=/Users/simon/Scratch/xper/art/android-data46788/dalvik-cache/x86_64/Users@simon@Scratch@art@out@host@darwin-x86@bin@..@framework@core.oat \
            --instruction-set=x86_64 --base-offset-delta=9420800
    patchoat W 46797 66657 art/runtime/gc/heap.cc:216] \
        Could not create image space with image file '/Users/simon/Scratch/art/out/host/darwin-x86/bin/../framework/core.art'. \
        Attempting to fall back to imageless running. \
        Error was: Failed to load /system image '/Users/simon/Scratch/art/out/host/darwin-x86/bin/../framework/x86_64/core.art': \
            Failed to mmap at expected address, mapped at 0x100b06000 instead of 0x60000000

and then it hangs/spins.

The address

    0x100b06000

in the error message from patchoat shows that it is a 64-bit executable, so it needs to be rebuilt as a 32-bit executable.

Modifying the file

    art/patchoat/Android.mk

in the same way as we did for dex2oat, rebuilding and trying again, remembering to specify that we want to use a 32-bit VM, we get

    $art --32
    art I 24835 34536 art/runtime/gc/space/image_space.cc:269] RelocateImage: \
        /Users/simon/Scratch/art/out/host/darwin-x86/bin/../bin/patchoat \
            --input-image-location=/Users/simon/Scratch/art/out/host/darwin-x86/bin/../framework/core.art \
            --output-image-file=/Users/simon/Scratch/xper/art/android-data24827/dalvik-cache/x86/Users@simon@Scratch@art@out@host@darwin-x86@bin@..@framework@core.art \
            --input-oat-location=/Users/simon/Scratch/art/out/host/darwin-x86/bin/../framework/core.oat \
            --output-oat-file=/Users/simon/Scratch/xper/art/android-data24827/dalvik-cache/x86/Users@simon@Scratch@art@out@host@darwin-x86@bin@..@framework@core.oat \
            --instruction-set=x86 \
            --base-offset-delta=-11399168
    Class name required

which is definitely an improvement.

Trying again with

   -help

to find out how to actually run something we get a long list of arguments we can use and an equally long list of arguments we cannot.

    $art --32 -help
    dalvikvm: [options] class [argument ...]

    The following standard options are supported:
      -classpath classpath (-cp classpath)
      -Dproperty=value
      -verbose:tag ('gc', 'jni', or 'class')
      -showversion
      -help
      -agentlib:jdwp=options

    The following extended options are supported:
      -Xrunjdwp:<options>
      -Xbootclasspath:bootclasspath
      -Xcheck:tag  (e.g. 'jni')
      -XmsN (min heap, must be multiple of 1K, >= 1MB)
      -XmxN (max heap, must be multiple of 1K, >= 2MB)
      -XssN (stack size)
      -Xint
    
    The following Dalvik options are supported:
      -Xzygote
      -Xjnitrace:substring (eg NativeClass or nativeMethod)
      -Xstacktracefile:<filename>
      -Xgc:[no]preverify
      -Xgc:[no]postverify
      -XX:HeapGrowthLimit=N
      -XX:HeapMinFree=N
      -XX:HeapMaxFree=N
      -XX:NonMovingSpaceCapacity=N
      -XX:HeapTargetUtilization=doublevalue
      -XX:ForegroundHeapGrowthMultiplier=doublevalue
      -XX:LowMemoryMode
      -Xprofile:{threadcpuclock,wallclock,dualclock}
        
    The following unique to ART options are supported:
      -Xgc:[no]preverify_rosalloc
      -Xgc:[no]postsweepingverify_rosalloc
      -Xgc:[no]postverify_rosalloc
      -Xgc:[no]presweepingverify
      -Ximage:filename
      -XX:+DisableExplicitGC
      -XX:ParallelGCThreads=integervalue
      -XX:ConcGCThreads=integervalue
      -XX:MaxSpinsBeforeThinLockInflation=integervalue
      -XX:LongPauseLogThreshold=integervalue
      -XX:LongGCLogThreshold=integervalue
      -XX:DumpGCPerformanceOnShutdown
      -XX:IgnoreMaxFootprint
      -XX:UseTLAB
      -XX:BackgroundGC=none
      -XX:LargeObjectSpace={disabled,map,freelist}
      -XX:LargeObjectThreshold=N
      -Xmethod-trace
      -Xmethod-trace-file:filename  -Xmethod-trace-file-size:integervalue
      -Xenable-profiler
      -Xprofile-filename:filename
      -Xprofile-period:integervalue
      -Xprofile-duration:integervalue
      -Xprofile-interval:integervalue
      -Xprofile-backoff:doublevalue
      -Xprofile-start-immediately
      -Xprofile-top-k-threshold:doublevalue
      -Xprofile-top-k-change-threshold:doublevalue
      -Xprofile-type:{method,stack}
      -Xprofile-max-stack-depth:integervalue
      -Xcompiler:filename
      -Xcompiler-option dex2oat-option
      -Ximage-compiler-option dex2oat-option
      -Xpatchoat:filename
      -X[no]relocate
      -X[no]dex2oat (Whether to invoke dex2oat on the application)
      -X[no]image-dex2oat (Whether to create and use a boot image)
        
    The following previously supported Dalvik options are ignored:
      -ea[:<package name>... |:<class name>]
      -da[:<package name>... |:<class name>]
      (-enableassertions, -disableassertions)
      -esa
      -dsa
      (-enablesystemassertions, -disablesystemassertions)
      -Xverify:{none,remote,all}
      -Xrs
      -Xint:portable, -Xint:fast, -Xint:jit
      -Xdexopt:{none,verified,all,full}
      -Xnoquithandler
      -Xjniopts:{warnonly,forcecopy}
      -Xjnigreflimit:integervalue
      -Xgc:[no]precise
      -Xgc:[no]verifycardtable
      -X[no]genregmap
      -Xverifyopt:[no]checkmon
      -Xcheckdexsum
      -Xincludeselectedop
      -Xjitop:hexopvalue[-endvalue][,hexopvalue[-endvalue]]*
      -Xincludeselectedmethod
      -Xjitthreshold:integervalue
      -Xjitcodecachesize:decimalvalueofkbytes
      -Xjitblocking
      -Xjitmethod:signature[,signature]* (eg Ljava/lang/String\;replace)
      -Xjitclass:classname[,classname]*
      -Xjitoffset:offset[,offset]
      -Xjitconfig:filename
      -Xjitcheckcg
      -Xjitverbose
      -Xjitprofile
      -Xjitdisableopt
      -Xjitsuspendpoll
      -XX:mainThreadStackSize=N

Writing a very simple ‘hello world’

    package xper.hw;
    
    public final class HelloWorldART
    {
        public static void main(String[] theArgs)
        {
            System.out.println("Hello World courtesy of the Android Runtime (ART)");
            System.exit(0);
        }
    }

and turning it to a .dex and trying again we get

    art --32 -classpath hw.dex xper.hw.HelloWorldART
    art I 24871 35716 art/runtime/gc/space/image_space.cc:269] RelocateImage: \
        /Users/simon/Scratch/art/out/host/darwin-x86/bin/../bin/patchoat \
            --input-image-location=/Users/simon/Scratch/art/out/host/darwin-x86/bin/../framework/core.art \
            --output-image-file=/Users/simon/Scratch/xper/art/android-data24863/dalvik-cache/x86/Users@simon@Scratch@art@out@host@darwin-x86@bin@..@framework@core.art\
            --input-oat-location=/Users/simon/Scratch/art/out/host/darwin-x86/bin/../framework/core.oat \
            --output-oat-file=/Users/simon/Scratch/xper/art/android-data24863/dalvik-cache/x86/Users@simon@Scratch@art@out@host@darwin-x86@bin@..@framework@core.oat --instruction-set=x86\
            --base-offset-delta=-4640768
    dex2oat I 24873 35749 art/dex2oat/dex2oat.cc:1266] \
        /Users/simon/Scratch/art/out/host/darwin-x86/bin/../bin/dex2oat \
            --runtime-arg -classpath \
            --runtime-arg hw.dex \
            --instruction-set=x86 \
            --instruction-set-features=default \
            --runtime-arg -Xrelocate
            --host \
            --boot-image=/Users/simon/Scratch/art/out/host/darwin-x86/bin/../framework/core.art \
            --dex-file=/Users/simon/Scratch/xper/art/hw.dex \
            --oat-fd=3 \
            --oat-location=/Users/simon/Scratch/xper/art/android-data24863/dalvik-cache/x86/Users@simon@Scratch@xper@art@hw.dex
    dex2oat I 24873 35749 art/dex2oat/dex2oat.cc:284] dex2oat took 246.341ms (threads: 8)
    Hello World courtesy of the Android Runtime (ART)
    art I 24871 35716 art/runtime/native/java_lang_Runtime.cc:41] System.exit called, status: 0

And there you have it. Possibly the longest and most convoluted way of getting a Java ‘hello world’ program to run short of writing your own Java runtime.


Copyright (c) 2014 By Simon Lewis. All Rights Reserved.

Unauthorized use and/or duplication of this material without express and written permission from this blog’s author and owner Simon Lewis is strictly prohibited.

Excerpts and links may be used, provided that full and clear credit is given to Simon Lewis and justanapplication.wordpress.com with appropriate and specific direction to the original content.

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